Female Representation and Human Development in Africa: The Role of Institutional Quality

Gifty Ewurama Enchill

Article history:
Received: 25 November 2022
Accepted: 21 November 2023


Research on female representation is gradually receiving empirical and policy interest at country and cross-country levels (Jetter & Parmeter, 2018; Kenny & Verge, 2016; Dreher Gehring & Klasen, 2015). Women’s participation at all decision-making levels is a human right and a significant social requirement for attaining equality, peace and democracy, sustainable development, and inclusive growth (Mlambo et al., 2019; Bouchama et al., 2018). Even though about half of the world’s population is women, only 26.1% of seats in parliament are held by women globally and 25% in Africa (IPU, 2021). This is attributable to the marginalization of women from the political sphere, often resulting from discriminatory laws and practices (see The Customary Law of Dahomey Article 27; Gabon 1972 Civil Code), attitudes, gender stereotypes, illiteracy, lack of access to healthcare, and the disproportionate effect of poverty on women (UN, 2011).

Female Representation, Women in Parliament, Women Ministers, Human Development, Africa

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