Female Representation and Human Development in Africa: The Role of Institutional Quality

Author(s):
Gifty Ewurama Enchill

Article history:
Received: 25 November 2022
Accepted: 21 November 2023

Abstract:

Research on female representation is gradually receiving empirical and policy interest at country and cross-country levels (Jetter & Parmeter, 2018; Kenny & Verge, 2016; Dreher Gehring & Klasen, 2015). Women’s participation at all decision-making levels is a human right and a significant social requirement for attaining equality, peace and democracy, sustainable development, and inclusive growth (Mlambo et al., 2019; Bouchama et al., 2018). Even though about half of the world’s population is women, only 26.1% of seats in parliament are held by women globally and 25% in Africa (IPU, 2021). This is attributable to the marginalization of women from the political sphere, often resulting from discriminatory laws and practices (see The Customary Law of Dahomey Article 27; Gabon 1972 Civil Code), attitudes, gender stereotypes, illiteracy, lack of access to healthcare, and the disproportionate effect of poverty on women (UN, 2011).

Keywords:
Female Representation, Women in Parliament, Women Ministers, Human Development, Africa


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